The bicorne or bicorn (two-cornered) is a historical form of hat widely adopted in the 1790s as an item of uniform by European and American army and naval officers. Most generals and staff officers of the Napoleonic period wore bicornes, which survived as widely-worn full-dress headdress until the 20th century.
Descended from the tricorne, the black-coloured bicorne originally had a rather broad brim, with the front and the rear halves turned up and pinned together forming a semi-circular fan shape; there was usually a cockade in the national colours at the front. Later, the hat became more triangular in shape, with its two ends becoming more pointed, and it was worn with the cockade at the right side. That kind of bicorne eventually became known in English as the cocked hat, but it is still known in French as the bicorne.
Worn in the side-to-side athwart style during the 1790s, the bicorne became normally seen fore-and-aft in most armies and navies from 1800. The change in style coincided with the flattening out of the pronounced front peak of the original headdress. The French gendarmerie continued to wear their bicornes in the classic side-to-side fashion until about 1904, and the Italian Carabinieri still do so in their modern full dress.
Some forms of bicorne were designed to be folded flat so that they could be conveniently tucked under the arm when they were not being worn. A bicorne of such a style is also known as a chapeau-bras or chapeau-de-bras.
The bicorne was widely worn until World War I as part of the full dress of officers of most of the world's navies. It survived to a more limited extent between the wars for wear by senior officers in the British, French, US, Japanese and other navies until World War II but has now almost disappeared in that context.
In addition to its military/naval uses, the bicorne was widely worn during the 19th and the early 20th centuries by civilian officials in European monarchies and Japan when it was required to wear uniforms on formal occasions. The practice generally ceased after World War I except in the context of diplomatic uniform. However, British colonial governors in temperate climates and governors general in some countries of the Commonwealth (notably Australia, Canada and New Zealand) continued to wear bicornes with ceremonial dress until the second half of the 20th century.
Members of the Académie française wear the habit vert (green habit) at the Académie's ceremonies. The habit includes a black jacket and a bicorne in the cocked-hat style, each embroidered in green.
Students at the École Polytechnique wear a bicorne as part of their Grand Uniforme (GU). Female students used to wear a tricorne hat but now also wear a bicorne. The bicorne also formed part of the historic black and red full dress of cadets at the French Military Medical School (École de Santé des Armées) until this uniform was withdrawn in 1971, except for limited use on special occasions. The bicorne is still worn by the members of the Cadre Noir in full dress uniform.
Diplomatic uniforms, worn on such occasions as the presentation of credentials by ambassadors, normally included bicornes worn with feathers and gold or silver braiding. Until World War II such uniforms were worn by even junior embassy staff but now survive only for ambassadors in a few long-established diplomatic services such as those of Britain, France, Sweden, Belgium and Spain.
This cocked hat, which varied in shape from the Italian countryside to Saint Helena, always measured between 44 and 47 cm in length and 24 to 26 cm in height. Those of Napoleon have the particularity of not being provided with the sweat band that the Corsican could not bear and that he systematically removed. Of the four taken with him to Saint Helena, one was placed in his coffin, which is to say the importance Bonaparte attached to his bicorne and the symbol they represented in the eyes of his intimates.
The real incidence of uterine malformations is difficult to assess in the literature . The bicornous uterus is a uterine malformation. The bicorne uterus can be one cervical or two cervicals. When he is two or bi cervical he is called by the Anglo Saxon uterus didelphe. The pathophysiology of these malformations is known but the etiologies remain obscure and few studies have been interested. Its frequency in uterine malformations varies from 39% to 45%. In fertile women there is 41% of bicorn uterus while in infertile women there is 25% of bicornous uterus. The bicornous uterus may be subject to recurrent miscarriage. The restoration of a normal uterinecavity is the basis of their treatment . It may require uterine plasty. We report here a case of pregnancy after uterine plasty of a cervical united bicorn uterus.
Surgery was decided and performed. It was performed under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation. After open coelio we proceeded to the establishment of a trocar of 10 mm under umbilical and two trocars of 5 mm in the iliac pits. At the introduction of optics we did not note any hepatitis peri or pelvic adhesions. We found a uterus bicorne united cervical whose right half was more developed than the left half. From each half of the uterus was a trunk ending in a well-bloomed flag, ovaries of normal appearance, and round ligaments in place. A pseudo ligament doubling the right broad ligament started from the base of the coecum to the posterolateral aspect of the right uterine half. We decided to convert to conventional surgery after marking the benchmarks of the plasty on the serosa of the inner edge of the two half-uteri. We performed a medial
Prevalence studies in the general population have biases because these malformations are often asymptomatic. The prevalence of uterine malformations found in women consulting for tubal infertility is between 0.17% and 5.6% according to the authors . The prevalence varies between fertile women 3% to 3.5% and infertile women 2.3%. ZHANG Yan at Peking University had 0.45% uterine malformations . The various types of malformations are the arched uterus 7% to 15%, the septal uterus 12% to 34%, the uterus unicorn and pseudo unicorn 4.4% to 5%, the uterus bicorne 39% to 45% and the Uterus didelphe 11%. ZHANG Yan and all had 10.3% bicorn uterus.
Two iatrogenic causes have been described as responsible for uterine malformations. It is on the one hand thalidomide responsible for uterus bicorne and Rokitansky syndromes, and secondly, and better known, diethylstilbestrol (Distilbent). Uterine malformations are associated with malformations of the upper urinary tract in about 30% of cases .
Hysterosalpingography remains an examination of current practice in the context of sterility tests but is never sufficient in itself for the diagnosis of uterine malformation. It gives information only on the morphology of the uterine cavity and not on the external aspect of the uterus. The specificity of hysterography used alone in the diagnosis of uterine malformations is only 17.5% to 55%, 62.5% in combination with clinical examination and 90% in combination with ultrasound . In the case of unicervical bicorne uterus, there is theoretically an angle greater than 90 between the two horns, but hysterography alone does not allow the differential diagnosis between bicorne and septate uterus.
In cervical or cervical bicorne uteri, echography typically reveals uterine cavities separated by a V-shaped herniation of the posterior bladder wall, which is in fact an inconstant and non-specific sign that can also be seen in uteri cloisonné .
According to the authors, the sensitivity of endovaginal ultrasonography is between 57% and 100% for the diagnosis of uterine malformations. Its specificity for the diagnosis of partition varies between 33% and 80%, whereas for the bicorne the specificity is of 100% . Three-dimensional ultrasound is particularly useful for the diagnosis of septate and bicorne uteri, as it allows the diagnosis of septate uterus in 92% of cases and of bicornous uterus in 100% of cases .
Laparoscopy is still the only diagnostic device that can confirm the external form of the uterus with certainty. In the bicorne uteri, laparoscopy allows to visualize the two horns separated by a furrow. It allows to appreciate the morphology of the ovaries and to look for associated lesions of endometriosis. Laparoscopy is an important examination in the diagnosis of uterine malformations. It is not carried out systematically and is justified only in case of infertility or associated pelvic pain or even if one considers a therapeutic act, taking into account the potential morbidity of this operative act and the clear progress of non-invasive imaging means. In our case we did a first laparoscopy before conversion to conventional surgery for septum rupture
Napoleon the Bicorne is a homie taking the form of a bicorne hat that is worn by Big Mom. He can also become a sword that Big Mom uses in combat. He is a special kind of homie, as he received a soul fragment from Big Mom herself, and serves as one of her personal weapons alongside Prometheus and Hera, and formerly Zeus.
Napoleon is an extremely large pink bicorne hat with a Jolly Roger on the front; the Jolly Roger consists of a skull with yellow eyes, two crossed knives, and a curled white mustache. He emotes through the skull of the Jolly Roger, seeing with its eyes and talking with its mouth. Napoleon also has a yellow stripe around his top, and a fastener on his left side.
Being made from a fragment of Big Mom's very own soul, Napoleon is far more powerful than regular homies. This gives the bicorne a will strong enough to resist the soul projection of the Yomi Yomi no Mi's user. He is also capable of receiving telepathic signals from other homies and relaying the received information back to Big Mom.
Por lo general, el diagnóstico del útero bicorne por ecografía se lleva a cabo como parte de la revisión ginecológica. No obstante, para poder evaluar correctamente esta malformación uterina, es posible que los especialistas recomienden realizar las siguientes pruebas: 041b061a72